When first starting out in photography, the switch to full manual mode can be more than intimidating! That is where learning to use Program mode can help you learn more about your camera’s functions and how to control them. Program mode is a great first step to getting off Auto and gaining some of the freedom that the more advanced capabilities of your camera have to offer. So go ahead and find the P for Program mode on your mode dial.
What can Program mode do for you?
In Program mode the camera will still make the majority of the decisions for proper exposure for you. The camera will still choose the shutter speed and aperture based on the light available. This means you will still get correct exposure, but at the same time it unlocks some other features that give you more control. You can then learn about those functions without having to worry about shutter speed, aperture, and proper exposure.
The functions you will be able to learn about and control are ISO (sometimes this mode is called ISO Priority for this reason), white balance, flash, and exposure compensation. Program mode is a great first step away from fully Automatic mode.
What is ISO and why control it?
ISO is the level of sensitivity to light as it hits your sensor. An ISO of 100 is not very sensitive and would be used when there is already plenty of light, such as a bright sunny day. As you move up through the ISO range, to 200, 400, 800 and higher the sensor becomes more and more sensitive to light. To achieve this the sensor is powered with more electrical charge. That electrical charge can lead to noise or digital “grain” in your images.
When you use Auto mode in low light the camera almost always tends to raise the ISO instead of changing the shutter speed or the aperture. When you use Program mode you have manual control over the ISO. You can set and use a low ISO to reduce noise in your images. If the image is underexposed, you can use Exposure Compensation (another “unlocked” feature) to balance the exposure.
What is Exposure Compensation and why control it?
Exposure Compensation is a function that allows you to override the camera to adjust the exposure lighter or darker. On most cameras you can set the exposure compensation up to +3 or -3 stops and use 1/3 stop increments in between to really nail the correct exposure.
Your camera is smart, but not always smart enough. Tricking lighting situations can “fool” the camera sensor into making an image too dark or too bright. In Auto mode you cannot correct this. In Program mode, you can dial in a positive or negative exposure compensation, respectively, to fix this.
Additionally, you can use Exposure Compensation in situations where you have to turn off the flash (another “unlocked” feature in Program mode). Without a flash an image may be underexposed. Using positive Exposure Compensation can adjust the exposure and correct it.
What is the flash and why control it?
For most users, the flash is a pop-up feature on the top of the camera. Some cameras do not have built-in flashes, but instead have a “shoe” where a separate flash can be attached.
In Auto mode, the camera decides if a flash is needed. It often “pops” up when you really don’t want to use it. In some situations, flashes are prohibited such as art museums. Flashes can result in washed out foregrounds and strange shadows in some situations. Flashes can wash out skin tones and create “red-eye” (when the flash light reflects of the back of the eye the subject in the photo has red glowing eyes).
Program mode will allow you to override the decision of the camera. You decide whether to use the flash or not. When paired with Exposure Compensation and the ability to set your ISO, you should be able to get the image’s overall exposure correct.
What is White Balance and why control it?
Different light sources cast different colors and this can affect your images. For example, indoor lights in a school gym can cast a yellow color. Shade can cast a blue color. White Balance is the camera’s adjustments to balance this lighting to a white light (think bright daylight) where colors are more accurate.
In Auto mode, the White Balance is selected automatically by the camera. AWB (Auto White Balance) works accurately much of the time, but once again, certain lighting situations can “fool” the camera. In Program mode you can set your own White Balance.
One way to do this is to select the type of lighting you are shooting in. For example, if I am shooting in the shade, I set the White Balance to Shade (I am telling the camera what type of lights I have in my scene). The camera then knows to balance the blue by adding some warmer tones to my image. The other way to set White Balance is by using Custom White Balance. To do this you would need a white balance card set and follow the steps in your camera manual. Custom White Balance is the best way to get consistent color across a series of images, for example a series of food images for a restaurant menu. By setting the White Balance you are giving the camera the more information about the lighting and it can use this to improve your images.
What is the takeaway?
Program mode is a great first step to getting off Auto mode. You can learn several important camera functions in this mode. If you master Program mode, then move on to Aperture Priority mode and Shutter Priority modes. Once you have those three aspects of exposure mastered individually, it will be much easier to put all three together when you finally switch over to full Manual mode.
If you’d like to try some free hands on lessons using ISO, Aperture Priority, Shutter/Time Priority, we have them on our website http://www.focusedcamera.net along with lots of free cheat sheets and tutorials.
If you’d like to take a class or workshop to “Get Your Camera Off Auto” we offer in-person and remote learning opportunities. Check out our class offerings and get in touch today!